Family-Based PBIS

Family-Based PBIS is an evidence-based, individualized approach developed specifically to offer behavioral support to children in need of developmental support. In order for the behavior support plan, prepared with the cooperation of the family and the expert, to be considered successful, it must be sustainable and permanent even after the expert assistance is discontinued (Marshall & Mirenda, 2002).
While preparing Family-Based PBIS interventions, it serves to ensure the continuity of the intervention, especially by considering family relations, communication styles and cultural elements (Vincent et al. 2011). Family-based PBIS interventions are based on the family, the strengths of the family are recognized and the intervention plan is built on these strengths. While doing this, the family's preferences and priorities are determined and the family is actively involved in the process in accordance with the family's culture (Allen & Petr, 1995; Dunst & Sherwindt, 2016). When problem behaviors arise in their children, families need to collaborate with experts to design appropriate interventions for these behaviors. Collaborative behavioral support planning is the "mutual knowledge sharing, creative problem solving and joint decision making" of experts and family members. It takes place in five successive stages, including processes (Lucyshyn et al., 2018; Snell, 1997). These stages are:
1. Establishing a relationship between the family and the specialist,
2. To make a functional evaluation of problem behaviors,
3. To determine appropriate interventions in daily natural routines,
4. Developing behavioral support plans for each of the daily routines
5. To implement and revise support plans as needed.

The involvement of the family in the child's education both at school and at home; including the child in the decisions taken is one of the basic principles of PBIS (Blair et al., 2011). With the emphasis on online education due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the American PBIS center has published several online booklets, presentations, and briefing notes containing family-based PBIS implementation strategies to support families urgently (; PBIS, 2020). Therefore, it is very important to focus on family-based scientific studies, since it is not clear when the pandemic will end. It is necessary not to limit the extraordinary situations that can be experienced or the situations of necessity that the families can experience with epidemic diseases. Natural disasters, unexpected situations such as terrorist incidents may require families of children with special needs to take on more teaching roles at home.

In the context of this need and importance, with the evidence-based Home-ODAD Family Education Model to be developed within the scope of the project, it will be possible to support children with SLD who have problems in behavioral, social and self-regulation skills, especially in the home environment, through their families. In this sense, it is expected to make a great contribution to the needs of both children and families. According to Rogers (2007), since the physical appearance and general conditions of children with SLD are similar to those of their peers compared to children in other diagnostic groups, some families easily accept the situation of their children, while others think that their child's condition consists of simply having difficulty concentrating (Tekin Ersan, 2007). 2012). Therefore, families They have difficulty in understanding why their children, who seem normal in every way, have these problems. Children with SLD are mostly accused of irresponsibility. These problems that occur in children directly affect the lives of parents and other members of the family, and the problems of the child with SLD become the problems of all family members with whom they share the same house (Özen, 2012; Wilgosh, 1990). In recent years, it is seen that the number of studies on SLD has increased gradually, the participants in a significant part of the studies are primary school age children, and parents and teachers are involved in fewer studies (Özkardeş, 2013). Therefore, in order for the literature on SLD to develop in Turkey, mother, There is a need for interdisciplinary evidence-based studies in which fathers and teachers are more involved in studies (Görgün & Melekoğlu, 2019; İlker & Melekoğlu, 2017). In this context, the "Home-ODAD Family Education Model", which is based on the PBIS approach, presents a standard application example that includes the application steps that these children can easily apply at home for the behavior, social and self-regulation skills of these children. The PBIS approach is based on increasing the quality of life of the individual. This education model focuses on the problem behaviors, academic deficiencies, and social-emotional skill levels that children experience at home; It will consist of studies that include positive communication and guidance in order to regulate routines and daily life skills of children at home (PBIS, 2020).

In this context, if there is no evidence-based intervention for children's problem behaviors and negative living conditions before the age of 10, these problems become more settled in the child like a chronic disease and turn into advanced problem behaviors (Stormont et al., 2008). A problem behavior mostly emerges in early childhood and if appropriate interventions and guidance are not provided (Alkahtani, 2013). Problem behaviors have a pervasive and devastating impact on children's development and family quality of life. In addition, DSM-IV (1998), He stated that people who showed problem behaviors before the age of 10 and who have Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in addition to these problem behaviors are at risk of developing antisocial personality disorder. Therefore, primary school years have a critical importance in intervening problem behaviors and gaining appropriate behavior. In this context, there are three types of prevention in special education. These; (1) primary prevention including social awareness studies, (2) secondary prevention including screening studies to identify disability at the social level, (3) tertiary prevention including interventions to reduce the negative impact of disability on the individual and his/her environment and ensure that the child is least affected by it. “HOME-BASED PBIS Family Education Model” is included in tertiary prevention studies in terms of including early prevention interventions. Family-based PBIS approach; It is a behavioral support service delivery model that aims to strengthen the family in cooperation and to improve the quality of life of the child and family, including basic features such as functional assessment and multi-layered behavioral support plan (Fawcet, 2020; Parmigiani et al., 2020; PBIS, 2020).

The most important social and economic contribution of this project is that by developing an evidence-based intervention to the problems experienced by children with SLD and their families and putting it at their service, it will serve to help children start their secondary and high school life more prepared and to solve the problems before they get deeper. If the problems these children experience in their childhood are not intervened early, the problems continue in the following years and now have an impact on the social level. As a matter of fact, some problematic behaviors experienced by the individual in adapting to the environment in the beginning, leaving school over time, turning to violence, theft, It can turn into permanent behavioral problems such as drug and drug use, which are difficult to intervene, take a long time to heal and require a certain budget (Beard and Sugai, 2004; Overton et al., 2002). Some of the objectives included in the MEB 2019-2023 educational activity area strategic plan; (1) providing psychosocial protection, prevention and intervention services, (2) increasing the level of student academic achievement and learning outcomes (MEB, 2019a). The dependent variable of this project is the problem behaviors, social skill levels and self-regulation skills of children with SLD. In children's academic skills, depending on the development of positive behaviors, social and self-regulation skills in children, It is expected that there will be positive developments in the quality of life of themselves and their parents (Kincaid et al., 2016; Sugai et al., 2000). The independent variable of the research, the HOME-BASED PBIS Family Education Model, includes practices that prioritize prevention and the quality of life of the individual.